Article archive

The selection of past press coverage contains the following articles (many can be viewed and printed with pdf reader):

Title: Supporting Joint Development of Systems and Software with Domain-Specific Languages
Languages for designing systems tend to be separate from languages for designing software. Changes on one side are thus harder to see and trace to the other side – and when such synchronization is done it is largely a manual effort. Domain-specific languages can make a difference, as they can enable joint development of products in fields that require both systems and software engineering expertise. Both teams use the same shared language and edit the same specifications – yet can focus on the aspects that are relevant to them. We describe this approach with examples where system and software aspects have been combined, and tracing is enabled or naturally present in the model. From these domain-specific models, many different artefacts can be automatically produced: software program code, configuration, verification, tests, deployment, material needs, instructions for installation etc. We conclude by describing the process and guidelines for defining domain-specific languages, and evaluating the effort needed.
Media: Proceedings of the Embedded World Conference 2022
Publication: June 2022
Title: Integrating Security and Safety with Systems Engineering: a Model-Based Approach
Development of reliable systems requires that safety and security concerns are acknowledged during system development. Adding them afterwards is risky as many concerns are missed if not elicited together with the system requirements. Unfortunately, languages for systems engineering, like SysML, typically ignore security and safety forcing development teams to split the work into different formats, languages and tools without easy collaboration, with limited traceability, separate versioning and restricted use of automation that tools can provide. We present a model-based approach targeting automotive that integrates safety and security aspects with other system development practices. This is achieved via a comprehensive domain-specific modeling language that is extendable by language users. We demonstrate this approach with practical examples on how security and safety concerns are recognized along with traditional system design and analysis phases.
Media: Proceedings of the Embedded World Conference 2022
Publication: June 2022
Title: Collaborative modeling and metamodeling with MetaEdit+
MetaEdit+ is a collaborative modelling tool and language workbench with a multi-user client-server object repository. Users, clients, server and repository can all be geographically distributed, and users access them with local apps, remote desktop or browser. Users can work with models and metamodels synchronously, with buffering via design transactions (minutes to hours), to prevent confusion and errors from releasing halffinished work. The tool uses automatic fine-granularity locking to avoid conflicts, allowing high concurrency. In this paper, we present an example case on which neophyte users can try this approach to collaboration in practice with minimal effort.
Media: Proceedings of the First International Hands-on Workshop on Collaborative Modeling (at Models 2021)
Publication: October 2021
Title: Social Engineering Exploits in Automotive Software Security: Modeling Human-targeted Attacks with SAM
Security cannot be implemented into a system retrospectively without considerable effort, so security must be taken into consideration already at the beginning of the system development. The engineering of automotive software is by no means an exception to this rule. For addressing automotive security, the AUTOSAR and EAST-ADL standards for domain-specific system and component modeling provide the central foundation as a start. The EAST-ADL extension SAM enables fully integrated security modeling for traditional feature-targeted attacks. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cyber-attacks has increased tremendously and of these, about 98 percent are based on social engineering attacks. These social engineering attacks exploit vulnerabilities in human behaviors, rather than vulnerabilities in a system, to inflict damage. And these social engineering attacks also play a relevant but nonetheless regularly neglected role for automotive software. The contribution of this paper is a novel modeling concept for social engineering attacks and their criticality assessment integrated into a general automotive software security modeling approach. This makes it possible to relate social engineering exploits with feature-related attacks. To elevate the practical usage, we implemented an integration of this concept into the established, domain-specific modeling tool MetaEdit+. The tool support enables collaboration between stakeholders, calculates vulnerability scores, and enables the specification of security objectives and measures to eliminate vulnerabilities.
Media: The 31th European Safety and Reliability Conference
Publication: September 2021
Title: Automated Annotations in Domain-Specific Models: Analysis of 23 Cases
Modeling languages focus on expressing aspects of the system they consider relevant. These can be for instance structural, behavioral, interaction, timing etc. aspects of the system. Most languages, however, do not explicitly visualize aspects related to correctness, consistency or incompleteness of models, or visualize information from system execution or animate the models. Such domain-specific information, however, is often considered when building domain-specific languages — after all, these languages want to follow the constraints and rules of a particular domain. We examine how domain-specific modeling automates the display of such information in models through annotations. We form a categorization of the semantics and visual representation of such information, based on earlier research and our own experience. The categorization is then applied to review the use of annotations in a set of Domain-Specific Modeling languages. The study shows a wide range of annotations being displayed in both graphical models and separate text views. Based on the languages that have been used the most, we conclude that annotation increases and becomes more graphical, particularly to help new users.
Media: FPVM 2021: 1st International Workshop on Foundations and Practice of Visual Modeling
Publication: June 2021
Title: Designing Safety In by Extending System Modeling Languages
To create safe systems, systems development should follow applicable safety standards. Nowadays much systems development uses modeling languages, yet most of these languages do not recognize safety concerns adequately. We present an approach in which relevant safety aspects are treated as first-class citizens: The modeling language includes concepts specifically for safety, in addition to those for other aspects of system design. In this paper we present how an automotive safety standard, namely ISO 26262 for functional safety, has been added to a system modeling language, extending its metamodel and the related tool support to enable natural modeling of safety aspects, collaborative development and safety reporting along failure analysis. The extended safety modeling support shows the key benefits of addressing safety together with system design: traceability between system design and safety design enables collaboration between system engineers and safety engineers, and error-prone, time-consuming manual phases are replaced with automated design transformation and analysis.
Media: Proceedings of Embedded World Conference
Publication: March 2021
Title: How Domain-Specific Modeling Languages Address Variability in Product Line Development: Investigation of 23 cases
Domain-Specific Modeling raises the level of abstraction beyond programming by specifying the solution directly with domain concepts. Within product lines domain-specific approaches are applied to specify variability and then generate final products together with commonality. Such automated product derivation is possible because both the modeling language and generator are made for a particular product line — often inside a single company. In this paper we examine which kinds of reuse and product line approaches are applied in industry with domain-specific modeling. Our work is based on empirical analysis of 23 cases and the languages and models created there. The analysis reveals a wide variety and some commonalities in the size of languages and in the ways they apply reuse and product line approaches.
Media: Proceedings of 23rd International Systems and Software Product Line Conference (SPLC’19), doi:10.1145/3336294.3336316
Publication: September 2019
Title: Applying Domain-Specific Languages in Evolving Product Lines
This demonstration shows how domain-specific languages for modeling and generating variant products can evolve together with the product line. In the demonstration, examples from practice are illustrated and executed, covering both domain engineering and application engineering. The examples cover the typical evolution scenarios: adding new features and variability points to a product line and then to existing products, changing their variation, and removing them completely from the product line. The evolution of the domain-specific languages, and the versioning of both the languages and products built with the languages, are demonstrated
Media: Proceedings of 23rd International Systems and Software Product Line Conference (SPLC’19), doi:10.1145/3307630.3342389
Publication: September 2019
Title: Effort Used to Create Domain-Specific Modeling Languages
Domain-specific modeling languages and generators have been shown to significantly improve the productivity and quality of system and software development. These benefits are typically reported without explaining the size of the initial investment in creating the languages, generators and related tooling. We compare the investment needed across ten cases, in two different ways, focusing on the effort to develop a complete modeling solution for a particular domain with the MetaEdit+ tool. Firstly, we use a case study research method to obtain detailed data on the development effort of implementing two realistically-sized domain-specific modeling solutions. Secondly, we review eight publicly available cases from various companies to obtain data from industry experiences with the same tool, and compare them with the results from our case studies. Both the case studies and the industry reports indicate that, for this tool, investment in creating domain-specific modeling support is modest: ranging from 3 to 15 man-days with an average of 10 days.
Media: Proceedings of ACM Models conference, doi:10.1145/3239372.3239410
Publication: October 2018
Title: Collaborative Creation and Versioning of Modeling Languages with MetaEdit+
Language engineering is a collaborative endeavor with several people creating and using the modeling languages and related generators. We describe key features of the MetaEdit+ multi-user version that support collaborative language engineering: Several language engineers can create and refine the same modeling language at the same time, see each other's changes, and version language definitions to version control systems. A key characteristic of MetaEdit+ is continuous integration of language definitions and of models created with the languages.
Media: Proceedings of ACM Models conference, doi:10.1145/3270112.3270132
Publication: October 2018
Title: Visual Modeling of Self-Adaptive Systems
When developing autonomous systems, designers employ different kinds of knowledge to specify systems. We present a visual modeling approach created for specifying self-adaptive systems. The approach uses model-based approach to specify the system context and ontology addressing both structural and behavioral parts. The resulting models are used with code generation with knowledge reasoning frameworks and tools. The presented approach supports collaboration and communications within the safety design team, improve productivity of the team and reduce the cost of software certification.
Media: Proceedings of Embedded World Conference 2018
Publication: February 2018
Title: Applying Domain-Specific Languages in MetaEdit+ for Product Line Development
This demonstration shows how domain-specific languages are applied with MetaEdit+ tool in various kinds of product lines, ranging from industry automation to consumer electronics. In the demonstration practical examples are illustrated and executed covering both domain engineering and application engineering. In particular evolution and versioning of domain knowledge and application knowledge is detailed and demonstrated.
Media: Proceedings of Software Product Lines Conference 2017
Publication: September 2017
Title: Collaborative Modelling with Version Control
Modelling and version control both play key roles in industrial-scale software development, yet their integration has proved difficult. Significant effort has been expended on improving file-based merging of modellers’ work, but empirical research shows the results of that approach still leave much to be desired in practice. Approaches based on multi-user modelling databases have often foundered by locking too broadly, thus preventing work on different elements in the same model, or by handling versioning themselves, leading to a silo. This article presents an approach to combining multi-user modelling with any external version control system, with no merging and no lock-outs.
Media: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, BigMDE STAF2017
Publication: July 2017
Title: Modelling by the People, for the People
Domain-specific modelling has moved the focus of model content from the implementation domain to the problem domain. However, much research still sees most modellers as programmers – a tacit assumption that is exemplified by the use of IDEs as modelling environments. Model-Driven Engineering research should instead be reaching out to make itself presentable to subject matter experts – as language creators, users, and research subjects. Every leap in developer numbers has been triggered by a new format, and we need another such leap now. Domain-specific modelling is ideally placed to step up and enable the creation of applications by people of all backgrounds.
Media: Springer, STAF2017
Publication: July 2017
Title: Automating Safety Engineering with Model-Based Techniques
Fault Trees and Failure Models and Effects Analyses are well known methods in safety and reliability engineering. Their use, however, requires a considerable amount of work, in particular when the system evolves and grows. We describe an approach that automates parts of safety design flow. First, existing architecture models can be translated to dependability and error models. Safety engineers can then adapt the models for various safety cases and finally run analysis calling a suitable tool. We demonstrate the approach within automotive domain: System is specified with domain-specific languages and the created models are translated to analysis tools. This approach provides several benefits. It helps to ensure that safety analysis is done for the intended/designed architecture. It also makes safety analysis faster as it is partly automated, reduces error-prone routine work and makes safety analysis easier to use and accessible.
Media: Proceedings of Embedded World Conference 2017
Publication: March 2017
Title: MetaEdit+ for Collaborative Language Engineering and Language Use
Almost all software development activities require collaboration and language engineering is no exception. First, there is a need for collaboration among language engineers as it is not realistic to expect one man to master all. Second, there is a natural need for collaboration among language users. Finally, there is a need for collaboration among language engineers and language users: Not only when languages are originally designed but more importantly when they are maintained along with the work already created with them. Unfortunately too often tools ignore collaboration by unnecessarily splitting the work into separate formats, tools and roles. We describe and demonstrate collaborative tool capabilities implemented into MetaEdit+ tool and describe experiences on their use in practice.
Media: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Software Language Engineering
Publication: October 2016
Title: Applying Test-Driven Development for Creating and Refining Domain-Specific Modeling Languages and Generators
While creation of modeling languages and related code generators has become easier, their testing is perhaps nowadays the most time consuming part. This is particularly relevant for Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) as it is common that the language and generators evolve frequently along with the domain it addresses. We demonstrate one solution that we have found practical when applying Test Driven Development for creating and maintaining modeling languages and generators along with tool support.
Media: Proceedings of 16th workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling
Publication: October 2016
Title: Modeling with EAST-ADL: Intelligent Speed Adaptation Systems
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) is considered worldwide as a major solution to improve road safety. The objective of this paper is investigating practical technical implementations of an advanced ISA system on an embedded distributed architecture. We consider an extended approach using several sources: speed limit database, road sign recognition and visibility distance estimation in fog, to obtain required speed limit. While many camera based solutions already exists to estimate visibility distance most of them are implemented for prototyping only, outside any methodological framework and not applicable for product market. We describe architecture ofISA system along with key requirements and product features using automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL.
Media: Proceedings of Fisita World Automotive Congress 2016
Publication: September 2016
Title: Model-Driven Development Challenges and Solutions:
Experiences with Domain-Specific Modelling in Industry
Model-Driven Development is reported to succeed the best when modelling is based on domain-specific languages. Despite significant benefits MDD has not been applied as widely as expected. Costly definition of languages and related generators with tooling, their maintenance when the domain is not stable, challenges in scalability, and collaboration are some reasons that several studies mention. We believe these statements are justifiable but only when applying traditional programming tooling for modelling. Instead we show with data from practice that many of the challenges reported can be solved when using tools built for modelling in the first place.
Media: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development
Publication: February 2016
Title: Automating Safety Engineering with Model-Based Techniques
System and software safety has never been as topical and important as today. While many safety standards emphasize the need of model-based specification, most design languages, like UML or SysML, do not recognize safety at all. We present an approach in which safety is treated as first class citizen directly in the modeling language, enabling the use of models for automated safety analysis.
Media: MetaCase White Paper
Publication: January 2016
Title: A Process for Model Transformation Testing
This paper describes a process for testing model transformations. The process is based on systematic analysis of the transformation rules and the related metamodels. These are used to identify the relevant parts of the metamodel to test the transformation, to define coverage criteria, and to define test oracles (checks) as invariants on what the transformation output should hold in relation to the input model. Tests are then created (generated) to produce suitable input models to fulfill the coverage criteria, and to check that the invariants hold in the transformation outputs for the different types of inputs generated. A case study of testing a transformation from the EAST-ADL specification for the automotive industry is presented.
Media: Proceedings of 10th Systems Testing and Validation (STV15)
Publication: October 2015
Title: Metamodeling for Medical Devices: Code Generation, Model-Debugging and Run-Time Synchronization
Metamodels can be used to specify languages that capture the concepts and constraints of an area of interest. We describe a case and experiences on applying metamodeling for the development of medical devices. Metamodels are used to define Domain-Specific Modeling languages raising the level of abstraction in models close to the problem domain and producing formal specifications. Generators then read the models and produce executable code running in medical devices. The novel part of our approach, and particularly useful for device development, is extending the generation approach to model debugging and synchronization between a state of a model and a state of a program executed in a target runtime-system. This enables quick iterative feedback from the running code back to models, supports verification of the developed control logic, and helps to optimize the use of hardware resources
Media: Procedia Computer Science, Volume 63, 2015
Publication: September 2015
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling for home automation
Excerpted from the book Domain Specific Modeling: Enabling Full Code Generation,  describes an example of a Domain-Specific Modeling solution for an embedded system that works closely with low-level hardware concepts.The article, divided in two parts, describes the complete DSM solution for from the language creation, generator implementation to actual use of the DSM solution.
Publication: February 2015
Title: Building a digital watch using Domain-Specific Modeling
Excerpted from the book Domain Specific Modeling: Enabling Full Code Generation, a fictitious digital watch company is used to demonstrate the advantages of domain specific modeling. The article, divided in three parts, describes the complete DSM solution from the language creation, generator implementation to comparing productivity between manual coding and DSM.
Publication: January 2015
Title: Collaborative Development of Domain-specific Languages, Models and Generators
Almost all software development activities require collaboration, and developing domain-specific languages is no exception. Language users provide feedback as the language is developed, and also different parts of the language can be developed in parallel: for example, one developer can focus on the abstract syntax, another on the notation, a third on code generators, and a fourth on integration with the development process. In this article we share our experiences on how teams can collaboratively develop and use domain-specific modeling languages, and what benefits this collaboration provides.
Media: Methods and Tools
Publication: December 2014
Title: Reaping the benefits of architectural modeling in embedded design
We present our experiences on how companies can ease the transition to model-based architecture design and begin reaping its benefits. We take automotive E&E (Electric & Electronic) systems as an example here, but the principles and tool support are not limited to the automotive domain.
Publication: November 2014
Title: Globalized Domain Specific Language Engineering
We discuss the engineering aspects involved in the integration of modeling languages, as an essential part of the globalization process. It covers the foundations of language integration, the definition of the relationships between the languages to be integrated, and the various dimensions of language and tool integration.
Media: Globalizing Domain-Specific Languages, Springer
Publication: November 2014
Title: A guide to Domain-Specific Modeling
Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) raises the level of abstraction beyond current programming languages by specifying the solution directly using problem domain concepts. The final products are then generated from these high level specifications. This automation is possible because both the language and generators need fit the requirements of only one company and domain. The DSM guide shows practical examples, shows difference to code and UML-based development and describes how companies can raise the level of abstraction to gain quality and productivity.
Publication: September 2014
Title: Using domain-specific modeling languages for medical device development
When companies start using domain-specific languages, they often want to utilize existing languages and specifications along with related components and legacy code. Through a concrete example from a medical domain, we describe how existing languages for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), like IEC 61131-3 structured text or function block diagrams, can be extended with domain-specific constructs. The domain-specific models are not only used for design and code generation, but also when debugging and profiling, or even incremental specification and execution "on the fly".
Publication: March 2014
Title: Tool and Model Interoperability: Now!
The systems and software development industry has seen several attempts at tool integration. Although the worst days of data silos are behind us, companies still face the interoperability challenge. To achieve interoperability today three things must happen. First, tools must offer ways for companies to define and extend the information stored by models, to improve compatibility with other tools and maintain links to them. Second, tools must enable integration based on existing standards, and allow users to build their own integration with both file-based and programmable interfaces. Finally, companies should select and apply only tools that provide those features.
Media: 2nd European Conference on Interoperability for Embedded Systems Development Environments
Publication: December 2013
Title: Empirical Comparison of Language Workbenches
Production use of Domain-Specific Modeling languages has consistently shown productivity increase by a factor of 5-10. However, the spread of DSM has been slowed by projects stalling even before the language was built, often citing problems with the chosen tool. With a wide variety of language workbench tools for DSM, there is a need for objective empirical tool comparison — particularly as the little research so far shows a range of 50 times more effort between the most and least efficient tools. This article looks at existing empirical research and an experimental design for a future comparison. We aim at increasing objectivity and repeatability while keeping overall effort practical, and providing worthwhile returns for the participants.
Media: 13th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling
Publication: October 2013
Title: Dynamic Symbol Templates and Ports in MetaEdit+
A graphical language definition is often divided into its abstract syntax and concrete syntax. The concrete syntax of a DSM language used on paper or in a drawing tool is often rich and varied, whereas many language workbenches only easily support rather simple boxes or icons, with more complex symbols quickly hitting a "customization cliff" and requiring manual programming. In this demonstration, we show the new dynamic symbol functions, templates and ports in MetaEdit+ 5.0. These extend the WYSIWYG symbol definition of MetaEdit+ with iterative and recursive possibilities, useful both for building common complex symbols and opening up new possibilities.
Media: 13th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling
Publication: October 2013
Title: Choosing the best level of abstraction for your domain-specific language (presentation abstract)
The biggest improvements, as reported by industry experiences, are achieved when the level of abstraction is raised as high as possible: Appropriate language-level abstraction is the same as the problem domain — or as close as possible to the problem domain. These cases also show that when raising the level of abstraction closer to the actual problem domain, traditional textual approach, dominating programming language design, is not necessarily the most suitable way to specify idea s and find solutions in the problem domain. Instead the domain and the most natural way to express and find solutions in that domain should guide the language designers.
Media: First Workshop on Domain Specific Languages Design and Implementation (DSLDI)
Publication: July 2013
Title: MetaEdit+ at the Age of 20
We review the initial vision underlying MetaEdit+, discuss its evolution over the last 20 years, and compare it to the state of the art today. We also note the rise of domain-specific modeling and the value that MetaEdit+ and similar tools have offered in advancing this field. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and conceptual advances in this field that have taken place since the implementation of the tool, and a review of the future of method engineering.
Media: Seminal contributions to Information Systems Engineering — 25 years of CAiSE, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Publication: 2013
Title: Advances in Automotive System Modeling: Part 1, Part 2
For decades developers of automotive embedded systems have enjoyed the benefits of modeling. Models have not only served communication and gaining better understanding but are also used to prototype, analyze, simulate and test the developed systems. With dedicated generators it has also been possible to produce production-quality software code from the models. Typical cases of code generation are various control-engineering solutions and infotainment systems with HMIs.
Media: EETimes
Publication: May 2013
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling Languages for Embedded System Development
Metamodeling and generators are typically applied to produce code and other software development related artifacts. Based on our experiences metamodels and generators can also be applied successfully to produce other non-software related artifacts, enable software and hardware co-design, support early level design space exploration, and automate testing activities. This paper describes our experiences, based on implementations done in MetaEdit+ tool, on applying metamodeling to create domain-specific modeling languages as well as the related generators for various kinds of embedded system development situations.
Media: ESWEEK workshop on Metamodeling for Embedded Systems (Paderborn University)
Publication: Oct 2012
Title: How to Integrate Models And Code
While we all create models in one form or another, their combination with code has been challenging. As a result, models are usually thrown away once the implementation has progressed. The reason is partly in the modeling languages used and partly in the modeling tools. We describe proven practices for success in integrating models and code.
Media: InfoQ
Publication: May 2012
Title: Industrial Experiences on Using Domain Specific Languages
Domain-specific modeling languages and code generators have significantly improved the productivity and quality of software development in many areas, but seem a particularly good fit for embedded software development. In this session, we describe industrial experiences in two different domains: touch screen devices and medical sports computer. In particular we investigate the influence to development productivity and product quality.
Media: Proceedings of Embedded Software Engineering Kongress (Tagungsband)
Publication: December 2011
Title: Mature model management
With the boom in modeling, everybody is trying to manage models with existing versioning tools and practices. And everybody is suffering: modelers, VCS vendors and modeling tool vendors alike. In this article we take a step back and look at what is actually needed for model management, and how a novel approach, designed from scratch for models rather than text, has fared in practice. We will examine what old problems of model, variant and version management it solves, and how. On the counter side we look at what new problems Domain-Specific Modeling Languages raise for model management, and how to address them. These results are based on and will be illustrated by examples from a variety of industries, including telecom, medical and finance. From these and other experiences over the last fifteen years, we will also see which ideas sound great in theory but don't work out in practice - and why.
Publication: June 2011
Title: Integrating Models with Domain-Specific Modeling Languages
Model integration is inescapable: any non-trivial system will be too large to fit sensibly in a single model. The model will have to be split, maybe into different aspects or languages, different modeler roles and tasks, different phases of the software development life cycle, etc. In Domain-Specific Modeling, the possibilities to integrate models are fundamentally better than with general-purpose languages as the company has full access to the language definitions. We describe and compare different ways to integrate DSM models, based on real world experience of what has been shown to work in practice on industrial scales.
Media: 10th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (HSE Print)
Publication: October 2010
Title: Experiences with Automotive Service Modeling
Existing component-based development in the automotive world is showing the strain, as systems grow ever larger and start to interact with systems in the world outside the vehicle. A service-oriented approach offers benefits of modularity and runtime configurability, but raises challenges of a suitable language and platform. We examine the applicability of BPEL to automotive services. From our preliminary results we suggest the need for Domain-Specific Modeling to better address the particular requirements of the automotive service domain.
Media: 10th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (HSE Print)
Publication: October 2010
Title: Ausgereiftes Modellmanagement
Die Modellierung boomt und alle versuchen, Modelle mit bestehenden Versionierungs werkzeugen und Praktiken zu verwalten. Und alle leiden darunter: die Modellierer ebenso wie die Anbieter von Systemen zur Versionsverwaltung und von Modellierungswerkzeugen. In diesem Artikel gehe ich einen Schritt zurück und gehe der Frage nach, was tatsächlich für das Modellmanagement benötigt wird. Ich untersuche, wie es einem neuartigen Ansatz, der mehr für Modelle als für Text entwickelt wurde, in der Praxis ergangen ist. Dabei gehe ich darauf ein, welche alten Probleme bei der Verwaltung von Modellen, Varianten und Versionen dieser Ansatz löst — und vor allem wie. Außerdem zeige ich, welche neuen Probleme domänenspezifische Modellierungssprachen für das Modellmanagement mit sich bringen, und wie mit diesen verfahren wird.
Media: ObjektSpektrum, 6/2010
Publication: October 2010
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling for full code generation
The advantage of using external DSLs is that they can better quarantee that developers follow the domain-specific constructs and rules. This article introduce Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) along with industry experiences. We give guidelines for moving successfully from coding to modeling with full code generation.
Media: DoD Software Tech News
Publication: January 2010 (Vol 12, No. 4)
Title: Evaluating the Use of Domain-Specific Modeling in Practice
The article describe an approach applied at Polar Electro to evaluate a DSM solution for developing embedded devices. The evaluation approach takes into account the objectives set for the creation of the DSM solution and collects data via controlled laboratory studies. The evaluation proved the benefits of the DSM solution: an increase of at least 750% in developer productivity, and greatly improved quality of the code and development process.
Media: 9th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (HSE Print)
Publication: October 2009
Title: MetaEdit+: defining and using integrated domain-specific modeling languages
This article shows how different domain-specific languages (DSLs) can be integrated with high-level metamodels, how languages can be created iteratively while automatically updating existing models, and how multiple modelers can work together seamlessly.
Media: Proceeding of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN conference companion on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications
Publication: October 2009
Title: Worst Practices for Domain-Specific Modeling
Interest in creating domain-specific modeling (DSM) languages is surging, but little guidance is available on how to do it right. Along with heeding best practices, learning what not to do — including how to handle common pitfalls and recognize troublesome areas — can help first-time developers. The authors have identified several worst practices based on an analysis of 76 DSM cases spanning 15 years, four continents, several tools, around 100 language creators, and projects with from three to more than 300 modelers. They present these worst practices in the order that language developers would encounter them over the life of a project.
Media: IEEE Software
Publication: July /August 2009 (p.22-29)
Title: What Kinds of Nails Need a Domain-Specific Hammer?
Domain-specific techniques provide a high-level specification for software systems. The technology's foundations have been developed over the last few years. However, domain-specific techniques aren't a panacea, and deciding whether investment in them is merited is an important step in understanding their benefits.
Media: IEEE Software
Publication: July /August 2009 (p.15-18)
Title: Speak the language
Can drug and device production be sped up through the use of high-level software programming? The article discusses the benefits of domain specific modelling and where and when it should be implemented.
Media: Medical Device Developments
Publication: Vol 2. 2009 (p.26-29)
Title: Auf ein Höheres Abstraktionsniveau (German)
Erstellung einer domänenspezifischen Modellierungssprache
Media: Entwickler Magazin
Publication: November / December 2008 (p.24-29)
Title: Domänenspezifisch entwerfen (German)
Modellbasierte Softwareentwicklung erlaubt automatische Codegenerierung
Media: Elektronik & Entwicklung
Publication: July 2008
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierung in der Praxis (German)
Discusses trends in DSM and practical applications of the approach.
Media: OBJEKTspektrum
Publication: July / August 2008 (p.38-40)
Title: Domänenspezifisches Modellieren mit MetaEdit+ 4.5: Facharbeit (German)
Review of MetaEdit+ 4.5 SR1
Media: iX Magazine
Publication: May 2008 (p.84-85)
Title: Domain-specific modeling significantly reduces development time
Introduces the fundamental concepts of DSM and the implementation of language for a home control system.
Media: Embedded Control Europe (ECE)
Publication: April 2008 (p.38-39)
Title: Improving Productivity and Quality with Domain-Specific Modeling
Discusses the creation of a DSM language for developing IP telephony services
Media: Embedded Systems Design Europe
Publication: April 2008 (p.20-23)
Title: Neues MetaEdit+ erleichtert Sprachentwurf (German)
Summary of MetaEdit+ 4.5 SR1
Media: Elektronik Automotive
Publication: April 2008 (p.20)
Title: Domeinspecifiek Code Genereren met MetaEdit+ (Dutch) / HTML version
Discusses how to generate code with MetaEdit+
Media: Bits & Chips
Publication: 28 March 2008 (p.30-31)
Title: Boosting Productivity with Domain-Specific Modeling
Explains how DSM can improve embedded software development productivity.
Media: Micro Technology Europe
Publication: January 2008
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling Languages: Moving from Writing Code to Generating It
Describes how to generate full production code from precise, high-level models in your own modeling language.
Media: MSDN
Publication: December 2007
Title: MoSiS Ignites Project to Give MDD Boost
Discusses the EU MoSiS project on MDD in embedded systems and MetaCase's involvement.
Media: Software Development Times (SD Times)
Publication: 1 December 2007 (p.25)
Title: Models of Elegance
Discusses how DSM, which increases the reliability of code and the speed at which it is written, is gaining ground in automotive system development.
Media New Electronics
Publication: September 2007
Title: Modeling for Full Code Generation
Explores an application of DSM and discusses the software development improvements achievable through this approach.
Media: Embedded Computing Design
Publication: August 2007
Title: Models of Elegance
Discusses how DSM, which increases the reliability of code and the speed at which it is written, is gaining ground in automotive system development.
Media: European Automotive Design
Publication: August 2007
Title: Modeling for Software Development in the Automotive Industry 
The Cover Story in this issue provides an alternative approach to modeling and code generation, called Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), which allows for full code generation from higher abstraction models.
Media: Eclipse Magazine
Publication: July 2007
Title: Extending Frameworks with Domain-Specific Modeling Languages
As productivity pressures continue to increase, software engineers are constantly looking for new and better ways to maximize their efficiency...
Media: Embedded Systems Engineering
Publication: June 2007
Title: Zielgenaue Codegenerierung: Domänenspezifische Modellierung eines Scheibenwischersystems
Media: Elektronik automotive
Publication: June 2007
Title: Domain-Specific Languages versus Generic Modeling Languages
Interview of MetaCase CTO Steven Kelly
Media: Dr Dobb's
Publication: May 2007
Title: Event processing and domain-specific languages
Bloor Research paper on domain-specific modeling and MetaEdit+
Media: IT-Director
Publication: February 2007
Title: Creating a Domain-Specific Modeling language for an existing framework
Domain-specific languages are a natural extension to code libraries and frameworks, making their use faster, easier and more consistent. This article describes how to define modeling languages on top of a library or a framework.
Media: Methods and Tools
Publication: December 2006
Title: In bester qualität: Mit Domain-Specific Modelling vollständigen Code generieren
Viele erfahrene Entwickler stehen Viele erfahrene Entwickler stehen Codegeneratoren misstrauisch gegenüber. Wie kann ein Standard-Generator etwas hervorbringen, was dem effizienten Code, den sie selber schreiben, auch nur ansatzweise nahe kommt? Anders sieht es aus, wenn der Entwickler wie beim Domain Specific Modelling seinen Generator einfach selber bauen kann.
Media: Elektronik Praxis
Publication: December 2006
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling
How DSM code generation can go beyond the benefits delivered by UML
Media: Redmond Developer News
Publication: November 2006
Title: Generating full code with DSM
This article introduces Domain-Specific Modeling and explains how DSM lets developer automate development tasks 
Media: Embedded Systems Engineering
Publication: August 2006
Title: Generating code with DSM
This article explains why domain-specific modeling languages are more suitable for code generation than UML
Media: Code Generation Network
Publication: June 2006
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling: Making Code Generation Complete
Domain-specific modeling is most successful when the models let you generate complete working code, without the need for post-generation code modifications or additions. The examples and guidelines in this article show you how.
Publication: April 2006
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierung: Beispiele aus der Praxis
Die domänenspezifische Modellierung erhöht den Abstraktionsgrad beim Programmieren, indem sie bei der Spezifikation einer Lösung die Konzepte der Anwendungsdomäne direkt verwendet. Die Endprodukte werden aus diesen High-End-Spezifikationen generiert. Diese Automatisierung ist deshalb möglich, weil sowohl die Sprache als auch die Generatoren die Anforderungen von lediglich einem Unternehmen und einer Domäne erfüllen müssen. Der Artikel beschreibt die domänenspezifische Modellierung (DSM) anhand von praktischen Anwendungsbeispielen. Er gibt einen allgemeinen Überblick über den Prozess der Sprachdefinition und vergleicht abschließend DSM mit der "Model Driven Architecture" (MDA).
Media: OBJEKTspektrum
Publication: April 2006
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling for Full Code Generation
Media: Software Development Journal
Publication: April 2006
Title: Interview in Code Generation Network
Media: Code Generation Network
Publication: February 2006
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling: How to Start Defining Your Own Language
By ignoring the requirement to be so abstract so as to fit any business problem, industry, or application type, domain-specific languages — by definition — avoid any compromises that would get in the way of your development. Find out how you can improve quality and productivity by an order of magnitude by learning the basics of building your own DSL today.
Publication: February 2006
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierung für vollständige Code-Generierung
Domänenspezifische Modellierung hebt das Abstraktionsniveau über das Niveau der Programmierung hinaus, indem die Lösung durch die unmittelbare Nutzung von Domänenkonzepten spezifiziert wird. Die Endprodukte werden aus diesen Spezifikationen auf höchstem Niveau generiert. Dieser Grad der Automatisierung wird dadurch ermöglicht, dass sowohl die Modellierungssprache als auch der Code-Generator nur die Anforderungen einer Firma und Domäne erfüllen müssen. Dieser Artikel stellt die domänenspezifische Modellierung (DSM) vor und erklärt, wie solche Sprachen und Generatoren implementiert werden können. Abschließend wird die DSM mit der MDA verglichen.
Publication: February/March 2006
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling: Welcome to the Next Generation of Software Modeling
Domain-specific modeling promises to change the modeling landscape by providing a greater level of abstraction from code than UML, providing modeling constructs for developers that mimic the real-world objects more closely, and most importantly, providing complete code-generation capabilities, which together lead to a much more productive way for developers to model applications.
Publication: October 2005
Title: Programmacode genereren met modelleringstaal
Media: Elektronica (NED)
Publication: September 2005
Title: Improving Developer Productivity With Domain-Specific Modeling Languages
What is DSM? How is it different from UML and MDA? Can DSM languages produce significant programming productivity gains? Can software development be truly model-driven?
Media: Developer.*
Publication: July 2005
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling for Full Code Generation
Domain-Specific Modeling raises the level of abstraction beyond programming by specifying the solution directly using domain concepts. The final products are generated from these high-level specifications. This automation is possible because both the language and generators need fit the requirements of only one company and domain. This article describes Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) with examples and compares it to UML and MDA.
Media: Methods & Tools
Publication: Fall 2005
Title: Domain-specific modeling for generative software development
Currently, software development is too often regarded as a generic, labor-intensive process where applications are basically coded from scratch using tools and methods that can be used for any type of software. This article introduces domain-specific modeling (DSM) to improve the quality of the software development process and drastically increases developer productivity.
Media: ITarchitect, VSJ
Publication: May 2005
Title: Domain-Specific Modelling
Domain-Specific Modelling raises the level of abstraction beyond programming by specifying the solution directly using domain concepts. The final products are generated from these high-level specifications. This automation is possible because both the language and generators need fit the requirements of only one company and domain.
Media: Application Development Advisor Express
Publication: May 2005
Title: Modellbasierte codegenerierung verwirklichen, teil 2
Vollständige Codegenerierung ist dann möglich, wenn sowohl die Modellierungssprache als auch der Generator die Anforderungen lediglich eines Unternehmens und einer Anwendungsdomäne erfüllen müssen. Dieser Artikel zeigt anhand praktischer Anwendungsbeispiele, wie eine vollständige modellbasierte Codegenerierung erreichbar ist.
Media: Design & Elektronik
Publication: April 2005
Title: Making model-based code generation work - practical examples (Part 2)
Full code generation is possible when both the modelling language and generator are made to fit the requirements of one company and domain only. Dr. Juha-Pekka Tolvanen inspects cases from practice to explain how complete model-based code generation is achieved.
Media: Embedded Systems Europe
Publication: March 2005
Title: Software-Modellierung ohne Kunstgriffe
Die domänenspezifische Modellierung erhöht den Abstraktionsgrad beim Programmieren, indem sie bei der Spezifikation einer Lösung die Konzepte der Anwendungsdomäne (einschließlich ihrer Semantik) direkt verwendet. Die Endprodukte werden aus diesen High-Level-Spezifikationen generiert. Diese Automatisierung ist dadurch möglich, dass sowohl die Sprache als auch die Generatoren die Anforderungen von lediglich einem Unternehmen und einem Anwendungsbereich erfüllen müssen.
Media: Elektronik
Publication: January 2005
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierung mit MetaEdit+
Die domänenspezifische Modellierung (DSM) verwendet bei der Spezifikation einer Lösung die Konzepte der Anwendungsdomäne direkt und erhöht dadurch den Abstraktionsgrad beim Programmieren. Die Endprodukte werden aus diesen High-Level-Spezifikationen generiert. Diese Automatisierung ist möglich, weil sowohl die Sprache als auch die Generatoren die Anforderungen von lediglich einem Unternehmen und einer Anwendungsdomäne erfüllen müssen. In diesem Artikel beschreiben wir, warum DSM schneller ist, und wie sich mit Hilfe des Werkzeugs ''MetaEdit+'' eine DSM-Sprache erstellen lässt.
Media: ObjektSpektrum (Online Themenspecials)
Publication: January 2005
Title: Platform-based development on a high programming abstraction level
In a similar way as compilers transform code in current programming languages to lower abstraction level machine code, MetaEdit+ allows programming on a higher abstraction level than code. This method increases productivity.
Media: Embedded Control Europe
Publication: September 2004
Title: Making model-based code generation work (Part 1)
Full code generation is possible when both the modeling language and generator are fitted to the requirements of one company and domain only. Dr. Juha-Pekka Tolvanen explains how model-based code generation can be achieved.
Media: Embedded Systems Europe
Publication: August/September 2004
Title: Tools for Domain-Specific Modeling
By generating full code directly from models, domain-specific modeling (DSM) uses graphical modeling languages to build narrow ranges of applications 5-10 times faster than hand coding. This article compares MetaEdit+ and Eclipse Modeling Framework and Graphical Editor Framework to build DSM solutions.
Media: Dr. Dobb's Journal
Publication: September 2004
Title: Defining Domain-Specific Modeling Languages: Collected Experiences
Domain-Specific Modeling offers a language-based approach to raise the level of abstraction in order to speed up development work and decrease the number of errors. In this paper we identify approaches that are applied for defining languages. This categorization is based on analyzing over 20 industrial cases of DSM language definition.
Media: OOPSLA Workshop on DSM, 2004
Publication: October 2004
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierung
Indem die domänenspezifische Modellierung bei der Spezifikation einer Lösung die Konzepte der Anwendungsdomäne (einschließlich ihrer Semantik) direkt verwendet, wird der Abstraktionsgrad beim Programmieren erhöht. Die Endprodukte werden aus diesen High-End-Spezifikationen generiert. Diese Automatisierung ist deshalb möglich, weil sowohl die Sprache als auch die Generatoren die Anforderungen von lediglich einem Unternehmen und einer Anwendungsdomäne erfüllen müssen.
Media: OBJEKTspektrum
Publication: July-August 2004
Title: Konfigurieren statt programmieren
Bei der Systementwicklung von Automobilelektronik finden vermehrt plattform-basierte Ansätze Anwendung. Die Entwicklung wird schneller und sicherer, wenn eine Modellierungssprache und ein Generator verwendet werden, die speziell auf die Anforderungen einer Plattform und eines Applikationsframeworks zugeschnitten sind.
Media: Automobil-Elektronik
Publication: August 2004
Title: Modellcode
Eine vollständig modellbasierte Codegenerierung ist möglich, falls sowohl die Modellierungssprache als auch der Codegenerator an die Anforderungen nur eines Unternehmens und einer Domäne angepasst sind.
Media: Design&Elektronik
Publication: July 2004
Title: MetaEdit+ review
MetaEdit+ gives you a drag-and-drop environment for hooking together objects and roles according to the relationships that you defined when building the language. The final piece of the puzzle is a very flexible reporting language. 
Media: Application Development Trends
Publication: February 2004
Title: Handset platforms create need effective software code generation
The growing number of handset platforms, such as Nokia's Series 60 or Motorola's i200 innovative Convergence, means the mobile phone market is ripe for code-generation and testing solutions, and that is what Finland-based MetaCase says it is bringing to the wireless world. 
Media: 3G Mobile Devices
Publication: February 2004
Title: Improving the integration of a domain-specific modelling tool
Domain-specific modelling has proved its worth for improving development speed and dependability of applications. Current tool implementations tend however to be monolithic, and to require the modelling tool to be at the root of the tree of tools used. This paper examines the requirements for integration and how this was carried out in one modelling tool.
Media: Procs of Workshop on Tool Integration in System Development (ESEC/FSE 2003)
Publication: September 2003
Title: Boosting Embedded Systems Development with Domain-Specific Modeling
Domain-specific modeling promises order of magnitude productivity and quality improvements for embedded software development by leveraging the knowledge of domain experts into the generation of final code. 
Media: RTC Magazine
Publication: April 2003
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling for Cross-Platform Product Families
Domain-specific modeling has proved its worth for improving development speed and dependability of applications. By raising the level of abstraction away from the code and towards the structure and behavior of an application, it also offers good possibilities for generating the same application from the same models, but for a wide variety of client platforms. This paper examines one example of domain-specific modelling for an embedded application, and how that was extended to a mobile platform.
Media: Procs of Advanced Conceptual Modeling Techniques, Springer-Verlag
Publication: 2003
Title: Domain-Specific Modeling: Improving productivity and time to market
Traditionally, software development has been a series of mappings from the domain idea, to design models, and on to source code. These mappings tend to be slow and lead to errors and duplication of effort in problem solving, design, and coding. Domain-specific modeling (DSM) addresses these problems by removing the resource-intensive and error-prone mappings, aiming to solve the problem only once at the same level of abstraction with the domain itself.
Media: Dr. Dobbs
Publication: August 2002
Title: Keeping it in the family
Companies defining families of related products would do well to reuse software design principles from one product to another, but modelling languages don't always support this concept.
Media: Application Development Advisor
Publication: July-August 2002
Title: Domänenspezifische Modellierungssprachen für Produktfamilien
Gängige Modellierungssprachen basieren auf den Konzepten von Programmiersprachen. Die mit diesen Modellierungssprachen abgebildeten Systeme erlauben nur bedingt die Darstellung von neuen Eigenschaften, die typischerweise bei neuen Produktfamilien-mitgliedern vorkommen. Die Vo rteile und Effizienz der Entwicklung von Produkt - familien geht damit verloren. Einen vielversprechenden Ausweg aus dieser Situation bieten domänenspezifische Modellierungssprachen, die auf die Entwicklung von P roduktfamilien ausgerichtet sind. Eine solche Modellierungssprache bzw. ein Meta - modell wird auf Basis der Eigenschaften einer Produktfamilie definiert. Dieses familien - spezifische Metamodell stellt dann den Rahmen für Produktvariationen dar, und bildet die Basis für eine automatisierte Software p roduktion. Im industriellen Einsatz führte die - ser Ansatz bereits zu einer zehnfachen Steigerung der Produktivität .
Media: OBJEKTspektrum
Publication: September-October 2001
Title: Into the domain of speed
An upward shift in abstraction leads to a corresponding increase in productivity. In the past, this has occurred when programming languages have evolved towards a higher level of abstraction. Today, domain-specific visual languages provide a viable solution for continuing to raise the level of abstraction beyond coding.
Media: Embedded Systems
Publication: October 2001